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App. A Characteristics of Raw Materials
Table A.1


% N C:N ratio Moisture Bulk density  
Type of (dry (weight content % (pounds per  
Material value weight) to weight) (wet weight) cubic yard)  
Crop residues and fruit/vegetable-processing wastes  
Apple filter cake Typical 1.2 13 60 1,197
Apple pomace Typical 1.1 48 88 1,559
Apple-processing sludge Typical 2.8 7 59 1,411
Cocoa shells Typical 2.3 22 8 798
Coffee grounds Typical - 20 - -
Corn cobs Range 0.4-0.8 56-123 9-18 -
Average 0.6 98 15 557
Corn stalks Typical 0.6-0.8 60-73 a 12 32
Cottonseed meal Typical 7.7 7 - -
Cranberry filter cake Typical 2.8 31 50 1,021
(with rice hulls) Typical 1.2 42 71 1,298
Cranberry plant (stems, leaves) Typical 0.9 61 61 -
Cull potatoes Typical - 18 78 1,540
Fruit wastes Range 0.9-2.6 20-49 62-88 -
Average 1.4 40 80 -
Olive husks Typical 1.2-1.5 30-35 8-10 -
Potato-processing sludge Typical - 28 75 1,570
Potato tops Typical 1.5 25 - -
Rice hulls Range 0-0.4 113-1120 7-12 185-219
Average 0.3 121 14 202
Soybean meal Typical 7.2-7.6 4-6 - -
Tomato-processing waste Typical 4.5 11 a 62 -
Vegetable produce Typical 2.7 19 87 1,585
Vegetable wastes Typical 2.5-4 11-13 - -
         
Fish and meat processing
Blood wastes (slaughterhouse waste and dried blood) Typical 13-14 3-3.5 10-78 -
         
Crab and lobster wastes Range 4.6-8.2 4.0-5.4 35-61 -
Average 6.1 4.9 47 240
Fish-breading crumbs Typical 2.0 28 10 -
Fish-processing sludge Typical 6.8 5.2 94 -
Fish wastes (gurry, racks, and so on) Range 6.5-14.2 2.6-5.0 50-81 -
Average 10.6 3.6 76 -
Mixed slaughterhouse waste Typical 7-10 2-4 - -
Mussel wastes Typical 3.6 2.2 63 -
Poultry carcasses Typical 2.4 b 5 65 -
Paunch manure Typical 1.8 20-30 80-85 1,460
Shrimp wastes Typical 9.5 3.4 78 -
         
Manures
Broiler litter Range 1.6-3.9 12-15 a 22-46 756-1,026
Average 2.7 14 a 37 864
         
Cattle Range 1.5-4.2 11-30 67-87 1,323-1,674
Average 2.4 19 81 1,458
Dairy tie stall Typical 2.7 18 79 -
Dairy free stall Typical 3.7 13 83 -
         
Horse-general Range 1.4-2.3 22-50 59-79 1,215-1,620
Average 1.6 30 72 1,379
         
Horse-race track Range 0.8-1.7 29-56 52-67 -
Average 1.2 41 63 -
         
Laying hens Range 4-10 3-10 62-75 1,377-1,620
Average 8.0 6 69 1,479
         
Sheep Range 1.3-3.9 13-20 60-75 -
Average 2.7 16 69 -
         
Swine Range 1.9-4.3 9-19 65-91 -
Average 3.1 14 80 -
         
Turkey litter Average 2.6 16 a 26 783
         
Municipal wastes
Garbage (food waste) Typical 1.9-2.9 14-16 69 -
         
Night soil Typical 5.5-6.5 6-10 - -
         
Paper from domestic refuse Typical 0.2-0.25 127-178 18-20 -
         
Pharmaceutical wastes Typical 2.6 19 - -
         
Refuse (mixed food, paper, Typical 0.6-1.3 34-80 - -
and so on)          
         
Sewage sludge Range 2-6.9 5-16 72-84 1,075-1,750
Activated sludge Typical 5.6 6 - -
Digested sludge Typical 1.9 16 - -
         
         
Straw, hay, silage
Corn silage Typical 1.2-1.4 38-43 a 65-68 -
         
Hay-general Range 0.7-3.6 15-32 8-10 -
Average 2.10 - - -
         
Hay-legume Range 1.8-3.6 15-19 - -
Average 2.5 16 - -
         
Hay-non-legume Range 0.7-2.5 - - -
Average 1.3 32 - -
         
Straw-general Range 0.3-1.1 48-150 4-27 58-378
Average 0.7 80 12 227
         
Straw-oat Range 0.6-1.1 48-98 - -
Average 0.9 60 - -
         
Straw-wheat Range 0.3-0.5 100-150 - -
Average 0.4 127 - -
         
Wood and paper
Bark-hardwoods Range 0.10-0.41 116-436 - -
Average 0.241 223 - -
Bark-softwoods Range 0.04-0.39 131-1,285 - -
Average 0.14 496 - -
Corrugated cardboard Typical 0.10 563 8 259
Lumbermill waste Typical 0.13 170 - -
Newsprint Typical 0.06-0.14 398-852 3-8 195-242
Paper fiber sludge Typical - 250 66 1140
Paper mill sludge Typical 0.56 54 81 -
Paper pulp Typical 0.59 90 82 1403
Sawdust Range 0.06-0.8 200-750 19-65 350-450
Average 0.24 442 39 410
Telephone books Typical 0.7 772 6 250
Wood chips Typical - - - 445-620
Wood-hardwoods Range 0.06-0.11 451-819 - -
(chips, shavings, and so on) Average 0.09 560 - -
         
Wood-softwoods Range 0.04-0.23 212-1,313 - -
(chips, shavings, and so on) Average 0.09 641 - -
         
Yard wastes and other vegetation
Grass clippings Range 2.0-6.0 9-25 - -
Average 3.4 17 82 -
Loose Typical - - - 300-400
Compacted Typical - - - 500-800
Leaves Range 0.5-1.3 40-80 - -
Average 0.9 54 38 -
Loose and dry Typical - - - 100-300
Compacted and moist Typical - - - 400-500
Seaweed Range 1.2-3.0 5-27 - -
Average 1.9 17 53 -
Shrub trimmings Typical 1.0 53 15 429
Tree trimmings Typical 3.1 16 70 1,296
Water hyacinth-fresh Typical - 20-30 93 405
Note: Data was compiled from many references listed in the suggested readings section of this handbook (pages 179-180). Where several values are available, the range and average of the values found in the literature are listed. These should not be considered as the true ranges or averages, just representative values.

a Estimated from ash or volatile solids data.
b Mostly organic nitrogen.


On-Farm Composting Handbook, Table of Contents


Reprinted with permission from On-Farm Composting Handbook (NRAES-54). ©1992 by NRAES (Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service). All rights reserved. For more information, please contact NRAES at 607-255-7654, or nraes@cornell.edu.

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