Science and Engineering

Compost Chemistry



C/N Ratio

Of the many elements required for microbial decomposition, carbon and nitrogen are the most important. Carbon provides both an energy source and and the basic building block making up about 50 percent of the mass of microbial cells. Nitrogen is a crucial component of the proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, enzymes and co-enzymes necessary for cell growth and function.

To provide optimal amounts of these two crucial elements, you can use the carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio for each of your compost ingredients. The ideal C/N ratio for composting is generally considered to be around 30:1, or 30 parts carbon for each part nitrogen by weight. Why 30:1? At lower ratios, nitrogen will be supplied in excess and will be lost as ammonia gas, causing undesirable odors. Higher ratios mean that there is not sufficient nitrogen for optimal growth of the microbial populations, so the compost will remain relatively cool and degradation will proceed at a slow rate.

Typical C/N ratios for common compost materials can be looked up in published tables such as Appendix A, On-Farm Composting Handbook. In general, materials that are green and moist tend to be high in nitrogen, and those that are brown and dry are high in carbon. High nitrogen materials include grass clippings, plant cuttings, and fruit and vegetable scraps. Brown or woody materials such as autumn leaves, wood chips, sawdust, and shredded paper are high in carbon. You can calculate the C/N ratio of your compost mixture, or you can estimate optimal conditions simply by using a combination of materials that are high in carbon and others that are high in nitrogen.

Materials High in Carbon C/N*
autumn leaves 30-80:1
straw 40-100:1
wood chips or sawdust 100-500:1
bark 100-130:1
mixed paper 150-200:1
newspaper or corrugated cardboard 560:1
Materials High in Nitrogen C:N*
vegetable scraps 15-20:1
coffee grounds 20:1
grass clippings 15-25:1
manure 5-25:1
* Source: Dickson, N., T. Richard, and R. Kozlowski. 1991. Composting to Reduce the Waste Stream: A Guide to Small Scale Food and Yard Waste Composting. Also available from the Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Cornell University, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853; 607-255-7654.

As composting proceeds, the C/N ratio gradually decreases from 30:1 to 10-15:1 for the finished product. This occurs because each time that organic compounds are consumed by microorganisms, two-thirds of the carbon is given off as carbon dioxide. The remaining third is incorporated along with nitrogen into microbial cells, then later released for further use once those cells die.

Although attaining a C/N ratio of roughly 30:1 is a useful goal in planning composting operations, this ratio may need to be adjusted according to the bioavailability of the materials in question. Most of the nitrogen in compostable materials is readily available. Some of the carbon, however, may be bound up in compounds that are highly resistant to biological degradation. Newspaper, for example, is slower than other types of paper to break down because it is made up of cellulose fibers sheathed in lignin, a highly resistant compound found in wood. Corn stalks and straw are similarly slow to break down because they are made up of a resistant form of cellulose. Although all of these materials can still be composted, their relatively slow rates of decomposition mean that not all of their carbon will be readily available to microorganisms, so a higher initial C/N ratio can be planned. Particle size also is a relevant consideration; although the same amount of carbon is contained in comparable masses of wood chips and sawdust, the larger surface area in the sawdust makes its carbon more readily available for microbial use.


Another essential ingredient for successful composting is oxygen. As microorganisms oxidize carbon for energy, oxygen is used up and carbon dioxide is produced. Without sufficient oxygen, the process will become anaerobic and produce undesirable odors, including the rotten-egg smell of hydrogen sulfide gas.

So, how much oxygen is sufficient to maintain aerobic conditions? Although the atmosphere is 21% oxygen, aerobic microbes can survive at concentrations as low as 5%. Oxygen concentrations greater than 10% are considered optimal for maintaining aerobic composting. Some compost systems are able to maintain adequate oxygen passively, through natural diffusion and convection. Other systems require active aeration, provided by blowers or through turning or mixing the compost ingredients.

Nutrient Balance

Adequate phosphorus, potassium, and trace minerals (calcium, iron, boron, copper, etc.) are essential to microbial metabolism. Normally these nutrients are not limiting because they are present in ample concentration in the compost source materials.


A pH between 5.5 and 8.5 is optimal for compost microorganisms. As bacteria and fungi digest organic matter, they release organic acids. In the early stages of composting, these acids often accumulate. The resulting drop in pH encourages the growth of fungi and the breakdown of lignin and cellulose. Usually the organic acids become further broken down during the composting process. If the system becomes anaerobic, however, acid accumulation can lower the pH to 4.5, severely limiting microbial activity. In such cases, aeration usually is sufficient to return the compost pH to acceptable ranges.


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Cornell Waste Management Institute ©1996
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853